PT Anugrah Multi Cipta Karya
Engineering Software Research Centre (founded 1989)

Office: Jl. Situ Aksan 29, Bandung 40221, INDONESIA
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Structural Audit, Assessment and Retrofitting

1. Introduction

From the basic principles of Building Design, all buidings must be designed to satisfy the following requirements:

    1. Safety

         Buildings must be safe to use and designed to prevent accident and loss of life
    2. Strength
         Buildings must be able to resist design load without giving excessive
         displacement, cracking, or collapse

    3. Serviceability

         Buildings must be able to function and be used with acceptable displacement and vibration
Typical steel and concrete buildings were designed for a usage life of 20 to 50 years. Along these years, building strength can deteriorate due to weather condition, concrete strength reduction, shrinkage and creep of concrete, rebar and steel corrosion, permanent deflection due to excessive load, change of room function and loading, foundation settlement, and other factors.
After 10-20 years, shallow and deep foundation on clay soil layer, will reach their maximum settlement, which can be more than the allowable settlement of 25mm. This large settlement will also affect the strength and serviceability of the building.
Steel structures can experience corrosion, especially in tropical and high humidity weather, and even worse in steel structure directly exposed to weather and rain because of the leakage of roof. Corrosion can reduce steel thickness significantly, thus reducing the strength, and also affect the tightness and strength of bolt connection. If the corrosion effect combined with the effect of wind vibration, bolt connection can loss the torque needed to hold the steel structure together.
Concrete structures can experience strength reduction due to the deterioration of concrete surface by weather, shrinkage and creep of concrete, and rebar corrosion caused by the water entering the concrete through the crack of concrete.
In the life of the structure, sometimes there will be change of room or building function, causing the change of intensity and distribution of floor loading, and even addition of mezzanine floor. If the final load is larger than the initial designed load, at any part or all part of the building, it will affect the strength, safety and serviceability of the building.
Every 3- to 10 years, new building codes also released, to accommodate new earthquake data, and new research findings and new material and construction technology available. If any design load or design procedures changed significantly, all existing structures must be re-evaluated accordingly. Because of above factors, government building regulation requires that a building must be inspected or assessed every 5 years to detect any deterioration or reduction of strength due to one or above factors.
Most buildings at Indocement Factory were built in 1980s, and some buildings may have experienced change of function, loading, and also settlement. In this case, an assessment will be conducted to existing buildings to check the condition and design for retrofitting or strengthening works if necessary.
Digital Hammer Test                     Profometer Test                                                                Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test
Core Drill Test                             Proses Pelurusan Kolom dengan Jacking
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